Monday, September 20, 2004

Ahadiths No Prophet after Muhammad (PBUH)

No prophet after Muhammad (PBUH)

There is no prophet after Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).There are many ahadith which say that there will be no prophet after Muhammad (PBUH).Here I am writing the Consensus of some of the renounced and leading Ulema of the Ummah about any prophet after Muhammad (PBUH). A man in the time of Imam Abu Hanifa (80 A.H.-150 A.H.) laid claim to Prophethood and said "Let me show you the proofs of my prophethood." The great Imam thereupon warned the people: "Anyone who asks of this man the credentials of prophethood, shall become an apostate, for the Prophet of God (PBUH) has explicitly declared: "No prophet will come after me." (Manaqib al-Imam-i-Azam Abi Hanifa, Ibn Ahmad al-Makki, Vol. I, p.161, published in Hyderabad, India, 1321 A.H.) `Allama Ibn Jarir Tabari (224 A.H.-310 A.H.) in his renowned commentary of the holy Qur'an gives the following interpretation of the verse, 'walakin Rasul Allahi wa Khatam-ul Nabiyyin': "He has closed and sealed the prophethood and the door (of prophethood) shall not open for anyone till the end of the world." (Vide Commentary of Ibn-i-Jarir, Vol. 22, p.12) In his book `Aqida-i-Salfia, while explaining the beliefs of the pious forbearers and particularly those of Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, Imam Tahavi (239 A.H.-321 A.H.) writes that Muhammad (PBUH) is a highly venerable servant of God. He is the chosen Prophet and the favorite Messenger of Allah. He is the last of the Prophets, Leader of the pious, chief of the Messengers of Allah and the beloved one of the Lord. After him every claim to Prophethood is an error manifest and worship of one's evil-self." (Sharah al-Tahawiya Fil-'Aqidat-ul-Salfia, Dar-ul-Ma'arif, Egypt, pp. 15, 87, 96, 97, 100,102.

`Allama Ibn Hazm Andulasi (384 A.H.-456 A.H.) writes: "It is certain that the chain of Divine revelations has come to an end after the death of the Holy Prophet(PBUH). The proof of this lies in the fact that none but a prophet can be the recipient of Divine revelations and God has affirmed that Muhammad has no sons among ye men and he is the Messenger of God and that He has sealed the office of Prophethood." (Al-Mohallah, Vol. 1, p.26) Imam Ghazali (450 A.H-505 A.H.) says `If the right of denying the authority of consensus be admitted, it will give rise to many absurdities. For example, if someone says that it is possible for a person to attain the office of Prophethood after our Apostle Muhammad(PBUH), we shall not hestitate to pronounce him as an infidel, but in the course of a controversy the man who wishes to prove that any reluctance in pronoucing such a person as an apostate is a sin shall have to seek the aid of consensus in support of his arguments, because reason is no arbiter against the possibilty of the existance of a `new prophet.' As regards the followers of the `new prophets' they will not be utterly incapable of making various interpretations of La Nabiya Ba`di, "There will be no Prophet after me" and Khatam-ul-Nabiyyin, `Last of the Prophets.' A follower of the `new prophets' might say that Khatam-ul-Naibiyyin, `Last of the Prophets' bears the meaning "last of the prominent Messengers." If you argue that "prophets" is a common word, he would very easily give this term a particular significance with regard to his own `prophethood.' In respect of `No Prophet will come after him', such a man would contend that this expression does not say that `No Messengers will follow him.' There is a difference betwen a Prophet and a Messenger. The status of a Prophet is higher than that of the Messenger. The fact is that such absurdities can be indulged in ad infinitum. It is not difficult, in our view, to make different interpretations of a word. Besides, there is no ample scope for people to commit blunders ever and beyond these points in the exposition of these clear words. We cannot even say that those who make such interpretations are guilty of the denial of clear injunctions. But to refute those who have but their faith in the false expositions we shall say that the entire Ummah by a consensus of opinion recognizes that the words `No Prophet shall come after him' and the context of the traditions suggests that the Holy Prophet meant that `No Prophet, nor Messenger shall follow him.' Furthermore, the Ummah is agreed on the point that above words of the Holy Prophet leave no scope for a different interpretation than given to it by the consensus of the Ummah and he who would not join the consensus is no more than a dissident. (Al-Iqtisad Fil Aiteqad, p.114, Egypt) Mohy-us-Sunnah Baghawi ( died 510 A.H.) writes in his commentary Ma`lam-al-Tanzil: "God brought the line of Prophets to an end with him. Hence he is the final Prophet.......Ibn `Abbas affirms that God(in this verse) has given His verdict that no Prophet will come after the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH)." (Vol. 3, p. 158. `Allama Zamakhshri (467 A.H.-538 A.H) writes in his commentary entitled Kashshaaf, "If you ask how Muhammad can be the last of the Prophets when Hadrat `Isa (Jesus Christ) will appear towards the end of the world? I shall reply that the finality of Prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH) means that no one will be endowed with prophethood after him. Hadrat 'Isa is among those upon whom prophethood was endowed before Muhammad(PBUH). Moreover, Hadrat 'Isa will appear as a follower of Muhammad and he will offer prayers with his face towards the Qiblah of Islam, as a member of the community of the Muslims." (Vol. 2, p. 215) Qazi 'Iyad (died 544 A.H.) writes: " He who lays a claim to prophethood, affirms that a man can attain the office of prophethood or can acquire the dignity of a prophet through purification of soul, as is alleged by some philosophers and sufis; similarly a person who does not claim to be a prophet, but declares that he is the recipient of Divine revelation, all such persons are apostates and deniers of the prophethood of Muhammad(PBUH), for Muhammad (PBUH) has conveyed the message of God to us that he is the final Prophet and no Prophet will come after him. He had also conveyed to us the Divine message that he has finally sealed the office of Prophethood and that he has been sent as a Prophet and a Messenger to the whole of mankind. It is the consensus of the entire Ummah that these words of the Holy Prophet are clear enough and eloquently speak of the fact that they can admit of no other interpretation or amendment in their meaning. Hence there is no doubt that all these sects are outside the pale of Islam not only from the view-point of the consensus of the Ummah but also on the ground of these words having been transmitted with utmost authenticity." (Shifa, Vol. 2, pp. 270- 271) `Allama Shahrastani (died A.H. 548), in his renowned book, Almilal wan Nahal, writes: "And similarly who says that a prophet shall come after Muhammad (PBUH), there are no two opinions that such a man is an infidel." (Vol. 3, p. 249) Imam Razi (543 A.H.-606 A.H.), in his work Tafsir Kabir while explaining the meaning of the verse Khatam-un-Nabiyyin states: "In this context the term Khatam-un Nabiyyin has been used in the sense that a Prophet whose ministry is not final may leave some injunctions or commandments incomplete or unexplained thus providing scope for a succeeding prophet to complete the task. But the Prophet who will have no successor is more considerate and provides clear guidlines for his followers, for he is like a father who knows that after him there will be no guardian or patron to look after his son."(Vol. 6, p. 581) Allama Baidawi(died A.H. 685), in his commentary, Anwar-ul-Tanzil, writes: "In other words he, Muhammed (PBUH), is the last of all Prophets. He is the one in whom the line of Prophets ends or the one whose advent has sealed the office of Prophethood. The appearance of Hadrat 'Isa (peace be upon him) after Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) is not a contradiction of the finality of Muhammed's Prophethood, because Hadrat Isa will appear as a follower of the Shariah of Muhammed." (Vol. 4, p. 164) 'Allama Hafiz-ud-Din Al-Nasafi (died A.H.710), in his commentary, Madark-ut-Tanzil, writes: "And he Muhammad(PBUH) is the one who has brought the line of prophets to an other words he is the last of all prophets. God shall not appoint another prophet after him. In respect of Hadrat `Isa(peace be upon him) it may be stated that he is among those who were appointed Prophets before the time of Muhammad(PBUH). And when Hadrat `Isa appears again, he will be a follower of the Shar'iah of Muhammad, and one among faithful." (p. 471) `Allama `Alau-din Baghdadi (died A.H. 725) in his commentary, Khazin, writes: "Wa Khatam-un-Nabiyyin,' in other words, God has ended prophethood in him, Muhammad(PBUH). Henceforth there is no prophethood after him, nor is there any partner with him in prophethood...Wa Kan Allahu Bikulle Shaiin `Alima, God is aware that no prophet will come after him." (pp. 471-472) Allama Ibn Kathir (died A.H. 774) writes in his well- known commentary, "Hence this verse is a clear proof of the fact that no prophet will come after Muhammad(PBUH) and when it is said that no prophet will come after him it is a foregone conclusion that no messenger will succeed him either, for the office of a messenger holds prominence over the office of a prophet. Every messenger is a prophet, but all prophets are not messengers. Any one who lays a claim to prophethood after Muhammad(PBUH) is a liar, a disruptionist, an imposter, depraved and a seducer despite his wonderous jugglery and magical feats. Any one who would make this claim in future till the end of the world belongs to this class. (Vol. 3, pp. 493-494) Allama Jalal-Ud-Din Suyuti (died A.H. 911) writes in his commentary entitled Jalalain, "God is aware of the fact that no prophet will succeed Muhammad (PBUH) and when Isa (PBUH) will reappear in the world he will act according to the Shariah of Muhammad (PBUH)." (p. 768) Allama Ibn Nujaim (died A.H. 970) in his renowned work of the canons of Fiqh entitled, 'Al-Ashbah wan-Nazair', Kitab- us-Siyyar:Bab: al-Raddah, writes: "A person who does not regard Muhammad (PBUH) as the last Prophet of God is not a Muslim, for the finality of Muhammad's prophethood is one of those fundamental articles of faith which a Muslim must understand and believe." (p. 179) Mulla Ali Qari (died A.H. 1016) in his commentary Fiqh Akbar, writes: "To lay a claim to Prophethood after the ministry of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is a sheer infidelity by the consensus of Ummah." (p. 202) Shaikh Isma'il Haqqi (died 1137 A.H.) while elucidating this verse in his commentary Ruh-ul-Bayan, writes: "Asim reads the word Khatam with a vowel stress on the letter ta which means the instrument of stamping and sealing, just as 'Printer' is the machine which imprints. The connotation of the word is that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was the last of all prophets and God has sealed the office of prophethood through his agency. In Persian the same meaning will be expressed by the term 'Mohar Paighambran'. The seal of Prophets i.e., his (Muhammad's) advent sealed the door of prophethood and the line pf prophets ended in him. Other reciters pronounce the word Khatim with the vowel point under the letter ta which means to say that Muhammad (PBUH) was the one who sealed the doors of prophethood. In Persian the same meaning will be expressed by the term 'Mohar Konindai Paighambran,' 'Sealer of the prophets,' so both ways the word Khatam bears one and the same meaning........Henceforth the Ulema of the Ummah of Muhammad(PBUH) will inherit only spiritual eminence from him. The inheritance of Prophethood is extinct, for Muhammad(PBUH) has sealed the office of Prophethood for all time to come. The appearance of Hadrat Isa (PBUH) after Muhammad(PBUH) is not a contradiction of the finality of Muhammad's prophethood. The term Khatam-un-Nabiyyin makes it clear that no one will be appointed a prophet after Muhammad(PBUH). Hadrat Isa (PBUH) was appointed Prophet before Muhammad(PBUH) and Isa(PBUH) will appear as a follower of the Shari'ah of Muhammad(PBUH). He (Isa)(PBUH) will offer prayers with his face turned towards the Qiblah designated by Muhammad(PBUH). Hadrat Isa (PBUH) will be one among the faithful of Islam. He will neither receive any Divine revelation nor will issue new injunctions; he will act as a follower of Muhammad(PBUH). `Ahl-Sunnat wal Jam'at (the Sunni sect) believe that no prophet will come after our holy Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) because God has affirmed: "wa-lakin Rasul Allahi wa Khatam-un-Nabiyyin", and the Prophet has said: La Nabiya Ba`di (There will be no Prophet after me.) Henceforth anyone who says that a prophet will succeed Muhammad(PBUH) will become an apostate, because he has denied a basic article of faith. Similarly anyone who casts doubt about the finality of Muhammad's prophethood, will also be declared an infidel, because the foregoing discussion has distinguished right from wrong. And any claim to prophethood after Muhammad(PBUH) is absolutely false." In Fatawa-i-Alamgiri which was compiled by the eminent scholars of the Indian sub-continent at the command of Aurangzeb Alamgir, in the 12th century Hijri, it is recorded: "A man who does not regard Muhammed (PBUH) as the final Prophet of God, is not a Muslim, and if such a man claims to be a messenger or prophet of God, he shall be proclaimed an apostate." (Vol. 2, p. 263) Allama Shoukani (died 1255 A.H.) in his commentary, Fath-ul-Qadeer, writes: "A majority of people have read the word Khatam with the vowel point under the letter ta but 'Asim reads the same word with vowel stress on ta. The first reading means that Muhammed (PBUH) ended the line of Prophets (peace of Allah be upon them) i.e., in other words the Holy Prophet came last of all the Prophets. The second reading means that the Holy Prophet was the seal by which the office of Prophethood was finally closed; and that his advent lent grace to the group of Allah's Prophets. Allama Alusi (died 1270 A.H.) in his commentary, Ruh-ul-Ma'ani, writes: "The word 'Prophet' is common, but the word 'Messenger' has a particular significance. Hence when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is called the 'Seal of Prophets,' it necessarily follows that he is also the 'Seal of Messengers.' The implication of the Holy Prophet's position as 'the Last of all Prophets and Messengers of God' is that by his(PBUH) elevation to the dignity of Prophethood in this world, the same dignity has henceforth been abolished and no man can attain that dignity now." (Vol. 22, p. 32)

and much more..................


Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya founded
In 1905, after the Promised Messiah learnt through some Divine revelations that his death was approaching, he wrote certain instructions entitled Al-Wasiyyat (‘The Will’) for his followers, as to the arrangements for the community after his death. This he published on 20 December 1905. In this he did not appoint any successor, but enjoined on the entire community to work together and make decisions by mutual consultation. However, to enable new members to be admitted to the community, he laid down that such elders of the community on whom forty faithful agree, may take the pledge from the entrants in the Promised Messiah’s name. He also proposed to establish a graveyard at Qadian for his community, which he named ‘Bahishti Maqbara’ (the graveyard of heavenly people).
On 6 January 1906, Hazrat Mirza sahib published an Appendix to his book Al-Wasiyyat, in which he gave in detail all the necessary instructions regarding his Will. For the administrative system after him he laid the foundations of an ‘Anjuman’ (organisation) and appointed that Anjuman as his successor. He framed some rules and regulations himself, and declared the main object of the Anjuman to be the propagation of Islam.
In Rule 13 he wrote:
“As the Anjuman is the successor to the Khalifa appointed by God, this Anjuman must remain absolutely free of any taint of worldliness. All its affairs must be completely above board, and based on fairness.”
He explained this in more detail as follows:
“All members of the Anjuman must belong to the Ahmadiyya Movement, and must be virtuous and honest. And if, in future, it is felt that someone is not virtuous, or that he is not honest, or that he is cunning and tainted with worldly motives, it shall be the duty of the Anjuman to expel him from its ranks forthwith and to appoint another in his place.” (Rule 10, Appendix, Al-Wasiyyat)
With the publication of Al-Wasiyyat and its Appendix, Hazrat Mirza sahib laid down the foundation of this Anjuman and named it Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya Qadian, and proposed establishing its branches in other places where the community existed. He appointed fourteen members as trustees of this Anjuman, with Maulana Nur-ud-Din as President and Maulana Muhammad Ali as Secretary. The following are the names of the fourteen members:
1. Maulana Nur-ud-Din — President 2. Maulana Muhammad Ali — Secretary 3. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din — Legal Advisor 4. Maulana Syed Muhammad Ahsan of Amroha 5. Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad 6. Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan of Malir Kotla 7. Seth Abdur Rahman of Madras 8. Maulana Ghulam Hasan Khan of Peshawar 9. Mir Hamid Shah of Sailkot10. Shaikh Rahmatullah of Lahore11. Dr. Mirza Yaqub Baig of Lahore12. Dr. Syed Muhammad Husain Shah of Lahore13. Dr. Khalifa Rashid-ud-Din14. Dr. Mir Muhammad Ismail
For the remaining two and a half years of his life Hazrat Mirza sahib ran this Anjuman according to the system and rules laid down in Al-Wasiyyat. It so happened that in the winter of 1907, in connection with the extension of the Mubarak Mosque, Mir Nasir Nawab, father-in-law of the Promised Messiah, wanted to impose his own judgment as against that of the Anjuman. On a complaint about this made by the Anjuman, Hazrat Mirza sahib personally came to a meeting of the Anjuman and wrote a note, as reproduced below, which is preserved in Maulana Muhammad Ali’s papers. Its English translation is as follows:
My view is that when the Anjuman reaches a decision in any matter, doing so by majority of opinion, that must be considered as right, and as absolute and binding. I would, however, like to add that in certain religious matters, which are connected with the particular objects of my advent, I should be kept informed. I am sure that this Anjuman would never act against my wishes, but this is written only by way of precaution, in case there is a matter in which God the Most High has some special purpose. This proviso applies only during my life. After that, the decision of the Anjuman in any matter shall be final.
Was-salaam. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, 27 October 1907.

The image of the original Urdu note is shown below:
It was decided by this document that after Hazrat Mirza sahib’s death the Anjuman would have complete authority. There would be no individual ruling over the Anjuman, and all the administration would be in the hands of the Anjuman. This was a great achievement of his, that he eradicated both the system of putting absolute power in the hands of the religious leader and the tradition of having an inherited spiritual headship.

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